Monday, May 09, 2016

9th may 2016 daily global regional and local rice e-newsltter by rice plus magazine

Watering down the cost of rice
Ridged farming and drip irrigation can save water in all paddy-sowing areas in the water-starved country
Description: Watering down the cost of rice
Pakistan, one of the largest rice producer countries (fifth largest), is virtually exporting 8 to 10 per cent of its waters around the world while it remains thirsty for a few months of every year. Around 3,000 litres of water are used in production of one kilogramme of rice in South Asia, as compared to 2,500 litres in some other regions.
Mostly, Pakistan exports basmati and non-basmati rice, specifically super basmati, basmati, brown rice, Irri-6 and Irri-9. Pakistan’s Irri 9 and 386 are also in demand in the Gulf and Middle East by the middle class society as it is cheaper than basmati rice. The country also grows the D98 variety which is aromatic rice and considered as basmati rice as it is grown by basmati seeds. However, its super basmati rice is liked all over the world as the best basmati rice.
Sindh and Punjab are famous for rice production, of which Sindh produces non-basmati varieties while Punjab mostly grows high quality basmati rice.
Rice is the second largest export of Pakistan — 3.73 million tons of rice was exported a couple of years back (FY14). It is also staple food in some northern and southern districts of Sindh. The most favourite dish in its largest city Karachi, Biryani, is made of the best quality rice.
Though rice crop accounts for the greatest proportion of the country’s water consumption, it has no alternate way of growing other crops. In 2014, Pakistan virtually exported 9.07 million acre feet (maf) water, which is roughly 8 per cent canal water of Pakistan’s total water resources measured 114 maf (million acre feet) per year.
Besides rice, sugarcane and banana are also huge water-consuming crops in Pakistan. But, experts as well as growers do not see any other option of cropping. “Because of food security, we have to protect rice, banana and sugarcane. We cannot reduce their production,” said Professor Muhammad Ismail Kumbhar of Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam.
Kumbhar said since Sindh’s growers were not getting proper incentives on less water-consuming crops like cotton, the growers were switching towards other more water-consuming crops. “We have exported banana this year,” he said. “Previously, we were not exporting it.”
Hamid Malhi, president Basmati Growers Association (BGA), said that Pakistan has a different situation as compared to other rice-growing countries, as many rice growing areas in Pakistan, especially in the Punjab, were high rainfall areas and no other crop was possible than rice. “Central and North Punjab is high rainfall areas from Sargodha to Lahore,” he said.
Bahawalnagar and Sahiwal in Punjab and Larkana in Sindh are ground areas, where water table is high and crops are irrigated on canal water. “Cotton cannot be grown in areas where rice is grown because of high humidity [in those places],” he said. “Growing rice in the area where cotton is grown is not a wise decision either; and this affects the overall production of cotton in the country.”
Until last year, Ghotki, a district of Sindh province, cultivated paddy despite the fact it was a fertile land area with the second highest production in the province after Sanghar. However, since last year, authorities took control and paddy has been banned totally, as historically it remained banned on the left side of the Indus in Sindh province with the exception of Kotri barrage.
Some growers in rice-prohibited areas of Sanghar and Mirpurkhas are still producing paddy because of less return on cotton (a less water consuming crop).
Sugarcane can survive in the paddy area, but it also consumes more water and needs water supply throughout the year. Malhi said that since there has been no new water reservoir in the country for the last 30 years, the country was losing water resources at the rate of one per cent per year.
Pakistan is still facing tough competition from other countries in virtual exports of its waters. Zulfikar Thaver, a rice exporter and President of Union of Small and Medium Enterprises (Unisame), said the export of basmati rice was facing tough competition from India as the prices of Indian rice were lower than theirs. “Even our super basmati rice is considered superior but there is a shift from basmati rice to non-basmati varieties as they are economical,” he said. “We are also exporting Irri-6 which is in demand in China and African countries. This is glutinous rice liked by the African countries.”
The growers are the worst affected with the growing competition and declining prices in the world, as majority of them have no option other than rice-growing in Pakistan.
Abdul Majeed Nizamani, President Sindh Abadgar Board (a union of growers in Sindh province), said that situation in Sindh is no different than that in Punjab. Those areas in Sindh are selected for paddy production where production of other crops is not possible. Right belt of Indus River System in Sindh province and Kotri Barrage canals are exclusively designed for the paddy-growing areas.
Cotton and other crops cannot be produced in high-humidity areas. However, sugarcane is a crop of 12 months but paddy is also produced on non-perennial canals that draw water for six months only in a year. Thus, sugarcane in those areas is also not a feasible crop.
Nizamani said that paddy uses 44 inches of water while cotton consumes 24 inches of water. “Ridged sowing, a new system of irrigation in Sindh, has been introduced at high quality lands, where paddy is produced at 50 per cent less water,” he said. “It depends on the land, which retains the moisture.”
Research on less water consuming cropping patterns, more yield or alternate varieties is very poor in Pakistan, which is badly hit by climate change. Nizamani said drip irrigation technology could save usage of water on these crops but that was not being practiced as there were no proactive agriculture, groundwater, water and environment policies in the province.
“We can reduce usage of water by adopting drip irrigation ridged farming but it requires support and proper training to farmers,” Professor Kumbhar said. “Government departments on water and agriculture research have failed to deliver because growers are not willing to change farming patterns with no incentives.” Ridged farming and drip irrigation can save Pakistan at least 4 maf water if adopted in all paddy-sowing areas in the country.

Description: Radha Mohan Singh - OdishaNRRI, Cuttack have developed CR Paddy 310 for the first time in world: Shri Singh

Union Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Minister, Shri Radha Mohan Singh said that initiatives taken by the Central Government for the welfare of farmers have started showing positive results. The Minister said this in a public meeting at Kandarpur, Cuttack, Odisha today. Shri Singh said that agriculture scientists are working hard to improve the conditions of farming and farmers in the country.
He further added that countless people have been already been saved from starvation through the use of sophisticated agricultural techniques. Minister further said that the scientists of NRRI, Cuttack have developed CR Paddy 310 for the first time in the world which contains 11% protein while other species of rice generally contain protein only 6-7%.
Union Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Minister stated that NRRI is carrying out researches on Doubled Haploid. He added that they are developing a technique which after having been successful will lead the farmers not to purchase the seed of hybrid rice species from the market. Through this technique the properties of hybrid rice will be transferred to other rice species. Minister further added that National Rice Research Institute continuously trying to make the rice farming beneficial and lasting.
Shri Singh told the gathering that after having formed the Government in May, 2014, a number of programmes had been launched for the welfare of the farmers which resulted in positive changes in the lives of farmers. He mentioned the following schemes in this respect:
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana:  Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana has been launched to provide relief to the farmers due to poor monsoon. Under this scheme emphasis are being put on “water to each and every farm” that is to say to provide facilities of irrigation to each and every farmer along with enhancement of water conservation skill.
Government of India is committed to encourage investment in the field of irrigation on water conservation and regional level along with the management concerned.  Under assured irrigation scheme, emphasis is being laid on cultivable land, improvement in the skill of water conservation on the field, precision irrigation encouragement to the sophisticated technology to save water, to enhance the potentiality of aquifer, to use the waste water of Municipal Corporation etc., through this process irrigation projects are being promoted through private investment.
Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yoaja: To promote bio-farming in the country, NDA Government launched an initiative in 2015. According to the scheme, the farmers are being encouraged to adopt bio-farming by making clusters in the country. To be benefited from this scheme at least a cluster of 50 farmers is required along with an area of land with 50 acre. Under this scheme, every farmer will be provided Rs. 20,000/- per acre for the span of three year. Farmers will utilize this amount for the purchase of bio-seeds, harvesting and to transport the agricultural products to the local market.
Soil Health Card Scheme: Government has initiated Soil Health Card scheme to provide farmers Soil Health Card in a mission mode. This card will contain the knowhow of the new trend in the soil and accordingly the required quantity of fertilizers. Through that farmers will be capable enough to obtain more products on their farms. Through this card, the farmers will know the fertility of their fields. The expert will sort out the problem concerned with soil.  Though this card the farmers will monitor the change of quality related to the soil after  prolong use of the farms in agriculture process and they will benefit from the soil card to maintain the health of the soil.
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojna:  Government of India has launched Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojna to provide relief to the farmers inflicted with the loss of crop damage. This is truly a farmer welfare scheme. Under this scheme, the burden of premium will be reduced and their cases will be sorted out expeditiously.  Apart from the losses inflicted by crop damage, the provision has been made with this scheme to relieve the farmers from the losses in harvesting aftermath scenario. This scheme provides assessment of local calamities along with a list on unseasonal rain form, land slide and floods. Under this scheme the farmers are supposed to pay 2% for Kharif and 1.5% for  Rabi.. Rest of the premium will be deposited by the Government. The Government has not prescribed any extent for subsidy. The remaining premium is 90% that will be paid by the Government. Under this scheme, remote sensing, smart phone and drone use is mandatory for the expeditious assessment of the crop damage.
National Agriculture Market (e-NAM): National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) is all India electronic trading portal which aims at to form a unified national market for agricultural products by making a network for the markets related to the existing Agricultural Product Marketing Committee (APMC). The government made up its mind to develop a National Agriculture Market so as to transport the agricultural product from one market to another in a smooth way, to save the producers from a number of market duties and to provide agricultural product to the consumers on a fair price. By September, 2016 eNAM will cover more than 200 agricultural market and by March, 2018 such methodology will be developed for 585 markets which will facilitate the transportation of agricultural products to the market. At present the farmers sell out their products through the Mandis or Bazar Committees which levy a number of duties on their products. Now, there will be only one license for the whole State and duty will be levied only on one point. Electronic auction will be conducted to know about the prices. It will facilitate the way to convert the whole state to one market. The farmers will obtain more alternative to sell out their products. The transparency will be increased due to online platform and farmers will get better return.
Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Minister said that digital technology will facilitate us to be linked with the others and to share our thoughts on different points. Hon’ble Prime Minister, Mr. Modi treats digital technology to provide employment to all the nationals and to change the national scenario. Mr. Modi desires to impart the benefits of digital India on farmers for which a virtual platform is being prepared as National Agriculture Market. Simultaneously a provision has been made for soil testing laboratories nearby selected mandis in the vicinity which will facilitate the farmers for soil testing.
India emergence campaign through village emergence:  Government of India has launched a campaign named as India emergence through village emergence so as to improve the means of livelihood amongst the rural, to accelerate rural development process to strengthen Panchayati Raj across the country to establish social equality to create awareness about the agricultural schemes.
My Village My Pride: A new scheme has been initiated to provide the methodology of scientific farming and a new technology to every village. For this purpose, all the experts of Agriculture University and ICAR Institutes spreads all over the country have been invited. Under this Scheme, 20,000 agriculture scientists have been engaged to adopt a village which is also involved to pay awareness to adopt the ways of sophisticated scientific farming and their implementation.  78 scientist of NRRI are in touch with farmers after having selected almost 92 villages. They are providing multi dimensional information and sophisticated benefits to the farmers within prescribed time frame.
Achievements of National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack: Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Minister said that this premium institute has celebrated its 70th foundation day on last 23rd April. On 23rd April, 1946 Central Rice Research Institute was set up. Minister said that while keeping in view the achievements of CRRI it has been elevated as National Rice Research Institute by imparting its status as National Institute. This Institute has developed 114 rice species for different agriculture climate condition. Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Minister thanked all the scientists of NRRI, Cuttack who have developed a very important mobile app named as “rice expert” through which farmers will get information about the different pests inflicting loss to their paddy farmers, new trends, nimetode, diseases related to paddy, different species of rice under different rice, agricultural devices and different activities after harvesting on their fields.
On this occasion, Union Minister of State (I/C) for Petroleum & Natural Gas, Shri Dharmendra Pradhan, Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) – Shri Bhartruhari Mahtab Ji, Secretary to DARE and Director General (ICAR)-Dr. Trilochan Mohapatra, Director to NRRI – Dr. A.K. Nayak and a number of prominent scientists were also present.

Firms have to set up business in Singapore to export Vietnamese rice
VietNamNet Bridge - A lot of companies have had to give up exporting rice because they cannot satisfy the requirements set by Decree 109.
Description: vietnamnet bridge, english news, Vietnam news, news Vietnam, vietnamnet news, Vietnam net news, Vietnam latest news, vn news, Vietnam breaking news, dissolved businesses, VCCI, VFA, rice exporters, Decree 109
Dinh Minh Tam from Co May, a private enterprise in Dong Thap province, said that the requirements stipulated in the decree were too high for small and medium rice exporters.

In order to be eligible, export companies must have storehouses that can contain 5,000 tons of rice, and a husking workshop with minimum capacity of 10 tons per hour.

Tam, affirming that very few companies can meet the requirements, said he ‘has to take a detour’ to continue exporting rice.

“We have to export rice through a large company in Can Tho City, and of course, we have to pay fee for the export authorization, VND40 per kilo of exports,” he said.

However, a service fee is not the only thing he worries about. More importantly, he fears he may have to disclose business information and lose customers and markets.
A lot of companies have had to give up exporting rice because they cannot satisfy the requirements set by Decree 109.
Also according to Tam, he has set up a Co May import company in Singapore which imports Co May’s rice through the authorized exporter. From the subsidiary in Singapore, rice products are brought to retail chains in the country.

As such, Co May has to follow a roundabout route to sell rice overseas, accepting to pay many additional expenses, including expenses to operate a company in Singapore. Meanwhile, if Co May exports rice directly from Vietnam, it would not have to pay the expenses.

Co May is not alone. Many enterprises said they want to export rice under Vietnamese brands so as to increase the value of the Vietnamese rice, but they cannot get export licenses because they cannot satisfy the requirements set by Decree 109.

Vo Minh Khai, general director of Vien Phu Company in Ca Mau province, said he was facing difficulties trying to export Hoa Sua, a brand of organic rice.

Khai said he once received a big order from Russia, but he could not obtain the license for export. After a lot of complaints, the company was granted a special mechanism which allowed him to export the rice. However, he has to apply for the license every year.

Nguyen Phuc Anh, director of Tan Tai III, said the company had to stop rice export after the decree was released because it could not arrange such a huge amount of money to build a large storehouse. The company now focuses on the domestic market.

Vo Tong Xuan, a leading rice expert, believes that it is necessary to set up specific policies to encourage small and medium enterprises to export specialty and fragrant rice
Rice smuggling: What is the real score?
12:00 AM May 9th, 2016
THE ISSUE of smuggling keeps popping up in newspaper headlines and television newscasts. The Senate even held a hearing on the subject last Feb. 24.
An industry group claimed some 2,772,142 metric tons of rice were smuggled from 2010 to 2014, double the volume of 1,066,021 tons from 2005 to 2009. It also proposed making the National Food Authority (NFA) the lone importer of rice and for the government to reconsider the implementation of the government-to-government (G2G) scheme as the sole mode of import, as cited in an article in The Manila Times last Feb. 24, 2016.
Rice is a protected commodity. It will be under quantitative restrictions until 2017 and subject to a tariff of 35 percent.
The subject of this column is the huge disparity in data cited by the industry group with the actual data derived from the United Nations (UN) Trade Statistics.
Data from UN websites, specifically and, appear to be radically different from the data of the industry group.
Here is the summary of rice trade during the 2010-2014 and 2005-2009 periods. (See Table 1)
Vietnam, Thailand, India, Pakistan, USA, and China are the Philippines’ main supplier of rice. They comprised 99.9 percent of exports to the Philippines in 2014.
The claim by the industry group that 2.77 million tons of rice were smuggled during from 2010 to 2014 period is not supported by the UN statistics, which indicated only 1.60 million tons were “smuggled.” The industry group also claimed around 1.07 million tons were “smuggled” from 2005 to 2009. There was no evidence of large smuggling during the period from international data sources

Illegal rice imports still pouring across border

Mon, 9 May 2016
Description: A man unloads a bag of rice at an export warehouse in Phnom Penh last year.
A man unloads a bag of rice at an export warehouse in Phnom Penh last year. Vireak Mai
More than a month has elapsed since the government vowed to strengthen its borders to halt illegal imports of rice, yet little has been done to stem the flow of illicit rice shipments flooding into Cambodia from its foreign neighbours and undermining the export efforts of local producers.
“We are still waiting to hear from the government on how it is taking measures on our issues, including rice imports from Vietnam,” Moul Sarith, acting secretary-general of the Cambodian Rice Federation (CRF), said yesterday.
“Until now, we did not receive any report from the government, though we’ve heard that the amount of imported rice has declined slightly.”
In March, the CRF called on the government to take urgent measures aimed at addressing two key challenges to the nation’s domestic rice industry, namely millers’ insufficient access to capital and the flood of illegal rice imports from neighbouring countries.
The request followed a separate initiative by the Cambodian Rice Industry Survival Implementation Strategy (CRISIS) group, which provided a nine-point action plan to address what it described as an industry on the brink of collapse.
On March 30, the government agreed to strengthen entry points along Cambodia’s borders to block illegal rice imports, while promising to dissolve any company’s certificate of origin that is caught mixing contraband rice for export.
Penn Sovicheat, director of the domestic trade department at the Ministry of Commerce, said that the government was still working to resolve the border control issue, but it was “impossible” to set a quota on imported rice due to Cambodia’s obligations to the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC).
“It’s difficult to set a quota on rice imports as this contravenes AEC policy, but we can increase the tax on rice imports,” he said.
Sovicheat added that the government was also working toward implementing the other issues raised by rice millers and exporters.
On April 6, the government waived the value-added tax (VAT) on agricultural products in a bid to reduce the price that rice millers must pay for paddy in an effort to make locally milled rice more price-competitive.
Contact author: Cheng Sokhorng

Brace for La Niña,’ NegOcc rice farmers urged

Monday, May 09, 2016
THE Office of the Provincial Agriculturist (OPA) is urging rice farmers in Negros Occidental to brace for La Niña, as like El Niño, it may bring huge damage and production losses to crops.
La Niña is the opposite of El Niño characterized by above normal rainfall, strong monsoon activity, and formation of more tropical cyclones.
A monitoring of the Provincial Disaster Management and Program Division ‘(PDMPD) showed that five to seven percent of La Niña effects may be felt by middle of June. It is projected to go ‘full blast in August or September immediately after the termination of El Niño, it added.
Senior Agriculturist Armando Abaño, crop protection coordinator of OPA, said that during La Niña, there will be months with more rainy days thus, the Provincial Government will be concentrating more on vulnerable areas.
Abaño said these areas are those low-lying farms where chances of flood and stagnation of water are high.
“While we are currently addressing the situation under the prevailing El Niño effects, we are already advising our farmers to brace ahead for La Niña,” he said, ‘adding that crop and nutrient management should be constantly observed amid the changing climate.
For rice farms up for planting in the next two to three months, the utilization of ideal planting materials is a must, the OPA said.
Abaño said farmers should use water-tolerant and bacterial diseases-resistant varieties of seeds, which can be obtained from various registered seed growers in the province.
Between direct seeding and transplanting, Abaño said the ‘OPA is advising the latter as direct seeding is prone to lodging.
In ‘terms of nutrient management, there should also be balance application of fertilizer as it contributes in the prevention of pests and diseases. The fertilizer requirement depends on the fertility of land, Abaño pointed out.
“Like El Niño, we also have to be ready and equipped for La Niña as it may also bring the same or even higher intensity of damage and losses, if not mitigated and addressed well,” he added.



How climate-smart agriculture is crucial for India's food security at a time of farm distress

By G Seetharaman, ET Bureau | 8 May, 2016, 03.37PM IST
Description: How climate-smart agriculture is crucial for India's food security at a time of farm distress
Tilling involves the digging and overturning of soil to prepare it for farming every season. Zero tillage improves water and nutrient retention.
Description: Tilling involves the digging and overturning of soil to prepare it for farming every season. Zero tillage improves water and nutrient retention.Just as we hit Karnal, 130 km north of New Delhi, in Haryana on National Highway 1, a noxious odour and a mild haze are all but obvious. As we turn left off the highway, their source comes into view: large stretches of agricultural fields coated in various shades of black, with the embers still fresh on some.Burning the residues of the rice crop after harvest in winter, and of wheat in March-April, is quite common among the farmers of Haryana and Punjab and the effects of the pollution are felt even in the national capital.But in Taraori village, most fields are populated by wheat residues a few centimetres to a couple of feet tall. Known for its export-quality basmati rice, Taraori is among the 27 villages in Karnal district which are showing the rest why it makes much sense to not burn the crop residues and why it is even essential.

Description: How climate-smart agriculture is crucial for India's food security at a time of farm distress
Playing Smart These villages are part of a research project of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). The five-year-old global project on climate-smart agriculture, which covers 21 countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, looks to make agriculture sustainable and resilient to climate change while at the same time increasing food production and farm incomes. CGIAR, or the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, is an umbrella body of 15 research centres.

Among the 27 villages, Taraori has emerged as a model climate-smart village of sorts with farmers who are progressive and receptive of new technologies, helped by the efforts of a farmers' group in the village.Vikas Chaudhary, who is secretary of the group, says eight out of ten farmers in Taraori did zero tillage on their land this rabi season and very few burned the residues.

Tilling involves the digging and overturning of soil to prepare it for farming every season. Zero tillage improves water and nutrient retention, and is one of the key components of climate-smart agriculture.All it takes is for farmers to see how we do things differently and most of them are quick to adapt," says 35-year-old Chaudhary, a graduate in political science and geography, who has followed his father into agriculture.

HS Jat of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, a unit of CGIAR, who has been involved with the project, says zero tillage along with residue management and diversification of crops reduce the fertiliser requirement by a fifth after three years.
Description: How climate-smart agriculture is crucial for India's food security at a time of farm distress

A tonne of rice and wheat residues, about 40% of which is carbon, is said to contain 5-8 kg of nitrogen, 1-2 kg of phosphorus and 11-13 kg of potassium. Som Dutt, a farmer from near Karnal city, says that in the last five-six years, he hasn't burned the residues or tilled his land, and as a result his wheat yields have gone up from 16-17 quintals to 20 quintals an acre. "My diesel use has also come down 80-85% in zero tillage compared with conventional tilling."

Even direct seeded rice, which involves the sowing of rice seeds directly, compared to the traditional method of sprouting rice in a nursery and transferring the seedlings to a field with standing water, reduces methane emissions by 40% and water use by 25%.

Among the tools to optimise fertiliser use is a sensor called Green Seeker which, when held over the crop, gives a reading. The data is fed into an app for the farmer to know how much fertiliser he should use. There is also a leaf-colour chart to help farmers decide how much nitrogen the crop needs. Farmers also use weather information and a technology to measure soil moisture.

Tackling Climate Change What makes climate-smart agriculture all the more important are occurrences of climatic variability, making farming more vulnerable to the vagaries of nature. For instance, the number of rainy days Karnal has every year has dropped from 40-45 two decades ago to 25 days, and the intensity of rainfall has risen, which is counter-productive to groundwater recharge because of the runoff of rainwater.

Moreover, unseasonal rains have also been witnessed in February over the last couple of years, something which other parts of the country have also experienced.

Warmer summers and droughts have also made agriculture, which more than half the Indian population relies on for a living, riskier. Last year was the world's hottest year on record and 2016 is expected to be even warmer, with the global average temperature being 1.14 degree Celsius higher than pre-industrial levels. This is worrying because over 170 countries have agreed to cap the increase at 1.5-2 degree Celsius this century.
Description: How climate-smart agriculture is crucial for India's food security at a time of farm distress
Climate-smart agriculture assumes even greater significance given its link to food security. According to a World Bank-commissioned study in 2013, total crop production in India is expected to rise 60% by the 2050s without climate change, but in the event of a temperature increase of 2 degree Celsius since the industrial revolution, the increase will only be 12%. Moreover, it will have to import twice the amount of food grains than in a scenario without climate change.

Pramod Aggarwal, South Asia regional programme leader, CCAFS, says we should not get lost in the debate of the magnitude of climate change. "The trend (in climate change) is clear and farmers are already suffering. We should develop strategies to address that." Aggarwal adds that since CGIAR is only a research body it is up to the government and the farmers to scale up climatesmart agriculture.

Helping Oneself Looking at the success of the trials in Karnal, the Haryana government has planned to take them to 500 more villages. Bihar is also looking to scale up climate-smart agriculture. The CCAFS project now includes 70 villages in Punjab, Odisha and Karnataka, besides Haryana and Bihar. Punjab and Haryana were among the states transformed by the Green Revolution in the 1960s.

A similar project of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, called National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture, has now covered 151 villages across the country and plans to add another 100.

Alok Sikka of the International Water Management Institute believes climate-smart agriculture is so structured that in a good monsoon year, the rains are sufficient for farming; in a bad monsoon year, there are water management and conservation practices which come to the farmer's rescue; and in a very bad year, the farmer can turn to crop insurance. The CCAFS project is developing customised, region-specific crop insurance schemes based on short-term and long-term climatic risks.

As stories of farm and farmer distress, for which climate variability is partially responsible, have become more common over the years, it is very clear that for agriculture to be a viable source of livelihood, and to ensure India's food security, the government and farmers themselves will have to ensure the latter's land and crops are more sustainable and climate-resistant in the long run.

10 hospitalised after consuming ontaminated rice

Description: Traderschartercontaminatedshipforwheatexport_14805
At least 10 people including women and children fall sick and were hospitalised after consuming contaminated rice on Saturday.Rescue sources said that 10 people including four children and two women ate rice which turned toxic due to unknown reasons and resultantly they fell ill.The affectees were shifted to District Headquarters (DHQ) Hospital where their condition was stated to be stable.

Collector directs millers to deposit rice stock by May 15

Sunday, 08 May 2016 | Staff Reporter | Raipur | in Raipur
The administration is all set to confiscate bank guarantee amount of rice millers if they failed to deposit cent percent rice stock to Civil Supply Corporation (CSC) within stipulated time, Raipur Collector O P Choudhary said on Saturday.
Chairing a meeting of rice millers at collectorate, Choudhary has directed millers to ensure cent per cent deposition of rice stock to CSC by May 15.
Meanwhile, taking stock of rice stock pending with millers, the collector made it clear that the administration is going to seize their bank guarantee amount if they fail to deposit cent percent stock.
The meeting was attended by officials of Food Department, Secretary of Chhattisgarh State Rice Millers Association Raipur, representatives of rice mills

Firni: A Pakistani rice-pudding that is a must have this Eid!

Published: May 8, 2016
Thais make theirs with coconut milk and serve it with mango. Iranians make it with saffron infused milk. Danish add butter and cinnamon to their rice pudding and serve it on Christmas Eve and the Egyptians make it with nutmeg and rosewater. PHOTO: AMBREEN MALIK
Rice puddings are part of quite a few cuisines around the world. Be it Thailand, UK, Iran, Bangladesh, Norway, Egypt, Puerto Rico or Pakistan, everyone has their own versions of rice puddings prepared with local ingredients. In Thailand, they make theirs with coconut milk and serve it with mango. In Iran, it is made with saffron infused milk. The Danish add butter and cinnamon to their rice pudding and serve it on Christmas Eve and the Egyptians make it with nutmeg and rosewater.
It seems joyous occasions in Pakistan, as well as all around the world, are celebrated with some version of rice pudding on the table. Pakistan has two variations of rice puddings. One is called Kheer which is heavy and creamy. The other one is called Firni which is lighter and thinner in texture. Both types of rice puddings are cooked for wedding feasts or for the celebration of Eid. Kheer is usually cooked in winter while Firni is cooked during long summer months and is served chilled in small earthen bowls called thootis. I have a preference for Firni and love to make it on festivals, especially on Eid.
Milk – 1 litre (full cream)
Evaporated milk – 250 ml
Basmati rice – ¾ cup (grounded to powder/fine granules)
Sugar – ½ cup
Green cardamom – 4
Kewra water/Orris water – 2 tsp (It is also called Screwpine essence or Pandan essence)
Slivered almonds – 50 g
Pistachio – 50 g (finally chopped, unsalted)

Wash the basmati rice with cold water thrice. Drain the water and put the rice on a kitchen paper to dry. Leave them under the sun for an hour or leave them overnight in the kitchen to dry completely. Then in a coffee or spice grinder, grind the rice along with four green cardamoms to tiny granules cum powder form.


2. Boil the milk in a pan and add the powdered/granulated rice. Once it starts boiling, lower the heat and let it cook for six to seven minutes.

3. Now add evaporated milk and cook for another five minutes. The objective here is to cook the rice thoroughly without drying too much liquid.
4. Now add sugar and mix. Cook for another 10 to 15 minutes or till the rice is completely cooked and the milk is 3/4th of the original quantity. Description:

5. The mixture should be thick like custard and should cover the back of the spoon. (See the above photo).

6. Remove the pan from the heat and let it rest for 10 minutes. The Firni will start thickening as it cools down. Add two tablespoons of kewra water and mix it.

7. Allow it to cool completely and refrigerate the mix in a plastic container.
8. Once the Firni is chilled, transfer it to serving bowls. Top with slivered almonds and chopped pistachios. Serve chilled.



The evaporated milk can be replaced with condensed milk. In that case, the quantity of sugar needs to be reduced as condensed milk is far sweeter than evaporated milk. You can also try using rose water if kewra water is not available. I would love to use edible silver for garnish if available. Firni can be made a day in advance. It can sit in the fridge for two to three days as well.
All photos: Ambreen Malik


Celebrate Vesak with Buddha's rice pudding
With Vesak approaching, rice pudding is on mind like every year when it is cooked in my household and eaten the roof under the glaze of full moon - the night of Buddha Poornima.
The story of the rice pudding for Vesak is more than 2500 years old. It is held that while in search of the truth of human life, Siddhartha Gautama with a group of ascetics practiced extreme austerities to gain control over his mind and body. However, his extreme physical emaciation and weakness could not make him control his mind continuously.

 In Focus
One day he fell down due to weakness, and a shepherd girl passing by saw it and offered him a bowl of simple rice pudding which Gautama gratefully accepted, ate and felt refreshed sat in meditation to be enlightened and found the middle path is real path to salvation with the rider of leading a life without desires.This event of enlightenment happened during the full moon in Taurus. This timing is important as Gautama was born during the full moon in Taurus and attained Nirvana also during the full moon in Taurus.

The best Vesak rice pudding is made with sushi rice, but in India basmati rice can be a good substitute. Sprinkle some light dusting of cinnamon on the pudding to add some flavor to it.
However, I am having Buddha Pudding on Vesak night for the last few years, but have not able to get into deep meditation after having it. The spiritual awakening of knowledge and wisdom comes by striving for perception of the reality beyond ordinary vision of the people who indulge in the ritual of cooking rice pudding and enjoying it.Awakening signifies realization of true and inner reality of higher consciousness which is achieved after many years of struggle and tough practice of meditation.

Three-course meal to try out on Mother’s Day


Posted  Sunday, May 8   2016 at  01:00
In Summary
Tweak it. Mother’s Day is not about ordinary and routine recipes. Here is a three-course meal to make with or for your mother today
Fish Bites with Crispy Cabbage
Add an Oriental element to a special meal with these attractive and tasty fish bites. Coated in sesame seeds and served with the traditional deep fried cabbage, they are sure to impress.
Serves 4
For the fish bites
1 ½ cups peeled shrimps (can be omitted in which case double the fish)
1 ½ cups Nile Perch or tilapia fillets
2 teaspoons light soy sauce
2 teaspoons sesame seeds
Oil for deep frying
For the cabbage
1 small head of cabbage
A pinch of salt
1 tablespoon slivered almonds
Soy sauce to serve

1. Put the shrimp and fish in a food processor and blend for 20 seconds and place in a bowl and stir in the soy sauce.
2. Roll the mixture into sixteen balls and toss in the sesame seeds to coat.
3. Heat the oil for deep frying to 325 d FH and shred the cabbage and place in the hot oil. Fry for two minutes and drain and keep warm. Sprinkle the cabbage with a bit of salt and toss in the almonds,
4. Fry the balls in two batches for 5 minutes until golden brown. Remove with a draining spoon and serve with the cabbage and soy sauce for dipping.
Thai fried rice
This is main course. It is a hot and spicy dish is easy to prepare and makes a meal in itself.
1 tumpeco Basmati rice
3 tbsps vegetable rice
1 chopped onion
1 small (preferably red bell pepper, but green will do nicely), seeded and cut into ¾ cubes
200 g boneless and skinless chicken breasts cut into ¾ in cubes
2 crushed garlic cloves
1 tablespoon mild curry paste
½ teaspoon paprika
½ teaspoon ground turmeric
2 tablespoon Thai fish sauce
2 eggs, beaten
Salt and black pepper to taste and fried basil leaves to garnish
1. Put the rice in a sieve and wash thoroughly under cold running water. Then put the rice in a heavy bottomed pan and add two cups of boiling water. Return to a boil and then gently simmer the pan uncovered for about ten minutes and then drain well. Spread out the grains on a tray and set aside to cool.
2. Heat a wok until hot and swirl it around. Add the onion and bell pepper and stir fry for about a minute.
3. Add the chicken, garlic, curry paste and spices and stir fry for 2-3 minutes.
4. Reduce the heat to medium and add the cooked rice, fish sauce and seasoning. Stir fry for 2-3 minutes until the rice is very hot.
5. Make a well in the center of the rice and add the remaining oil. When hot, add the beaten eggs, allow to cook for about 2 minutes until lightly set, then stir into the rice.
6. Sprinkle over the fried basil leaves and serve at once.
Chinese greens

This is a tasty accompaniment. Here Chinese greens are prepared in a very simple way – stir fried and served with oyster sauce. The combination makes a simple, quickly prepared tasty accompaniment.
Serves 3-4
½ kg Chinese greens (Pak choi)
2 tablespoon vegetable oil
1-2 tablespoon oyster sauce
1. Trim the Chinese greens, removing any discolored leaves and damaged stems. Tear into manageable pieces.
2. Heat a wok until hot and add the oil and swirl it around.
3. Add the Chinese greens and stir-fry for 2-3 minutes until the green leaves wilt a little.
4. Add the oyster sauce and continue to stir-fry a few seconds more until the greens are cooked but slightly crisp. Taste and correct seasoning before serving.

From mothers to daughters – five traditional recipes from across the country

A dessert from Kerala, a relish from Andhra, a spicy side-dish from Mangalore and more to celebrate Mother's Day.

By: Team Express FoodIE | Mumbai | Published:May 7, 2016 7:07 pm
It’s turned into a brand name, a punchline for an ad and is the last word in cooking traditions across the world. We’re talking about the mother’s recipe. Ahead of Mother’s Day, we asked five of our contributors for a favourite recipe that has been handed down to them by their mother. We have two desserts, a relish, a flavoured rice and a hot, side dish for you.
Subhashini Venkatesh – Bhojana Recipes
As soon as I was born, my family settled in Vijayawada, in Andhra Pradesh. We lived there for few years. My mom, Lakshmi Sundaram learnt this recipe there and it became the favorite recipe of all our relatives. My mom once took part in a cookery contest conducted by the Mahila Samaj of our village and she won first prize for this recipe. So I can never forget the day when I saw my mom getting on stage to receive her prize from the Panchayat President. Hence it’s my most favorite pickle that takes me back to my school days. I learnt this recipe from her during my summer vacation when I was just 15 years old. Now this Allam pachadi has become a signature recipe of mine too…
Description: Subhashini Venkatesh and her mother.Subhashini Venkatesh and her mother.
Allam Pachadi is the all time favorite side dish for anything on your plate. This is an authentic , traditional pickle/chutney/thokku of Andhra Pradesh. It can be even used as a dip or spread. It can be spread on rotis and rolled. It tastes great with idli, dosa and pesarratu. It can be mixed in hot rice and had with any raithas. This flavourful and spicy pickle stays fresh for as long as two months.
Allam Pachadi
500g- Ginger
1- Big lemon-sized ball of tamarind
5 tbsp- Red chilli powder
6 tbsp- Jaggery powder
4 tbsp- Crystal salt
150 ml- Gingely oil
For seasoning
1 tsp- Mustard seeds
1 tsp- Channa dal
2- Red chillies
Description: Allam pachadi - Bhojana recipesAllam Pachadi.
* Wash the ginger well without any dirt and wipe them dry.
* Peel the skin and cut them to small pieces.
* Boil 50 ml of water and soak the tamarind in the hot water.
* Wait till the hot water gets cooled.
* Now take a bigger size mixer jar and add the ginger pieces, jaggery powder, salt, red chilli powder and the soaked tamarind (without water) into it and grind to a fine smooth paste.
* Then add the water in which the tamarind was soaked and grind further.
* Transfer the paste to a broad bowl.
* Heat a wok with 150 ml of gingely / sesame oil.
* Add the seasoning ingredients.
* When the channa dal becomes roasted red , pour the oil on the ginger paste in the bowl and mix well with a ladle.
* Once the pickle gets cooled store it in a glass bottle.
* It can be stored for months in refrigerator and used.
Maria Jose Martin – Maria’s Menu
Cooking isn’t my amma’s strong suit. That being said, I don’t think it ever bothered me that she wasn’t interested in cooking. Even as a child when my friends used to bring their homemade treats, I never for once wished or wondered what if my amma could make it.
However, there are somethings I like best when Amma makes them, her Parippu Payasam, Orotti, Bombay Toast, Erachi Thoran, Chapathi are some of my favs (yes, that’s about her total menu)…
Description: Maria Jose Martin with her mother.Maria Jose Martin with her mother.
I chose this recipe as Mother’s day special, because it was handed down from my grandmother. I remember eating bowl full of this Unda payasam many a times during my childhood days. It’s something that amma and Tesschechy (my mother’s sister/ my aunt) make even now when we visit.
You can call it a traditional Kerala style dessert made with rice flour, coconut and banana. The combination of rice flour and coconut never loses its magic with me and addition of banana adds a different flavour to this dish.
Unda Payasam
Serves: 6-8
2- small or medium-sized Ripe Plantain (Ethakka), quartered
1 tbsp- Ghee
½ cup, heaped- Rice flour (refer notes)
½ cup, heaped- Coconut
½ cup- Boiling water
2.5 cups- Water
4 to 5 tbsp- Sugar
1- Cardamom, crushed
¼ cup- Thick coconut milk
* Melt 1 tbsp ghee in a small frying pan.
* Add quartered banana and sugar (1/2 – 1 tbsp).
* Fry till the banana turns golden brown. Keep it aside.
* Combine flour, coconut and salt in a deep and wide mixing bowl. Add boiling water gradually to make a soft and smooth dough.
* Reserve 1-2 tbsp of dough and make tiny dumplings from the rest of the dough.
* You can make bigger ones too, but keep in mind the dumplings tend to expand while cooking.
* Cover this with a wet cloth to prevent it from drying out.
* Add ¼ – ½ cup hot water to the kept aside dough and make a thick paste.
* Boil 2.5 cups of water in a medium size sauce pan.
* Add dumplings to it and bring it to boil. Reduce the flame to lowest and cook for 6-8 mins.
Add 4 tbsp sugar and mix gently.
* Continue to cook for 5 more mins and add the dough paste. Mix well.
* Once it begins to thicken, add coconut milk and stir well.
* Add fried banana and crushed cardamom and mix well. Remove from fire after 4-5 mins.
Description: Unda Payasam. (Photo: Mariasmenu)Unda Payasam. (Photo: Mariasmenu)
* Banana is cooked along with the dumplings in the original recipe. It imparts a strong banana flavour to the dish. You can follow that method, if you prefer a stronger banana flavour. If you don’t prefer the banana taste at all, you can skip it and just make rice dumplings.
* Also, in the original recipe, coconut milk is not used. I used it to make it creamier and also for the flavour. You can add hot water instead of coconut milk.
* The quantity of sugar can be adjusted to suit your requirements. Start with 1-2 tbsp of sugar and add more, if required.
* The dish tends to thicken a lot as it rests. You can add some hot water and reheat it to adjust the consistency.
Shobana P Rao – Cooking with Shobana
A few days ago on April 30, I remembered my amma on her 97th birth anniversary. My mother, Smt Ammembal Vimala Pai, was a typical mother of her times. Ours was a large family (we were six children). She managed a household efficiently with no wastage of any kind, yet cheerfully cooked up hot and delicious food for us and a steady flow of visiting kith and kin.
Description: Shobana P Rao with her mother Ammembal Vimala Pai.Shobana P Rao with her mother Ammembal Vimala Pai.
Being the youngest in the family, I learnt a lot about cooking from her only through observation and being the helper. There were no formal talks on how to make this or that. It was my job to assist by keeping the necessary ingredients ready, grinding the batter (in those pre-mixer days) and generally being of use to her as she then laid the final touches to the dish, mostly traditional Konkani food, as only she could.
Facebook likes, blog page views and other such indices of cooking blogs would have been alien to her, coming much after her time. Since I learnt so much from her I like to think she would have been pleased to see my cooking blog. As a small tribute to my Amma on Mother’s Day, I share the recipe for a dish we used to have often. One of my favourites called, “Vaingana Puddi Saggle” which is a curry of baby brinjals cooked with fenugreek and coriander in a coconut-based masala.
While you can use brinjals of any type, today I have chosen to make this dish with small brinjals. I would recommend you use the Red Byadgi Chillies in this preparation. This dish is a perfect side dish to our meal of rice and dal.
Vaingana Puddi Sagle
8-10- Baby brinjals
3/4 cup – Fresh Coconut, grated
8 or as per taste- Red Chillies (Byadgi)
A small marble-sized ball of tamarind
1 ½ tsp- Coriander seeds
¼ tsp- Fenugreek ( Methi) seeds
1-2 tbsp- Oil
½ tsp- Mustard seeds
1 sprig- Curry leaves
Salt, to taste
Description: Vaingana Puddi Saggle. (Photo: Cooking with Shobana)Vaingana Puddi Saggle. (Photo: Cooking with Shobana)
* Wash the brinjals without cutting their stalks.
* Without breaking off the quarters, slit each of the brinjals at the base into four keeping the stalk intact. You may trim the stalk if it is too long. Keep aside.
* In a little oil, roast separately the red chillies, coriander seeds and methi seeds.
* Grind together grated coconut alongwith the roasted red chillies, coriander seeds, methi seeds, tamarind and salt to a coarse paste, adding just the required amount of water.
* Stuff this ground masala into the slit brinjals.
* Heat oil in a kadhai and when it gets hot, add mustard seeds.
* When they splutter, add curry leaves and saute.
* Next, add the stuffed brinjals and the remaining masala.
* Sprinkle a little water, cover and cook the brinjals over medium flame, stirring from time to time.
* Take care that the brinjals are not broken and that they are well coated with the masala.
* Cook till the brinjals get done and the excess water from the masala evaporates giving the dish a dry and roasted finish.
* Serve hot.
Bridget White-Kumar – Anglo-Indian Food
I was born and brought up in an Anglo-Indian family in Kolar Gold Fields, a small mining town in the erstwhile Mysore State now known as Karnataka in South India. Kolar Gold Fields or K.GF, ‘the Little England’, had a large and predominant British and Anglo-Indian population, so our lives too were influenced to a great extent by British colonial culture.
My mum was an exceptional cook and even the most ordinary dishes cooked by her tasted delicious. She was very versatile and imaginative when it came to cooking. She would improvise and turn out the most delicious curries and side dishes with whatever ingredients were on hand. Every dish she prepared was delicious even if it was just basic rice and meat curry that was cooked every day. Mummy had a procedure for everything. The onions had to be sliced ever so thin, and the green chillies and coriander leaves chopped finely. Even the tomatoes for the curry were scalded first and the skin removed, then chopped into bits and strained through a sieve so that only the pulp was used and the seeds and skin thrown away!
Description: Bridget White-Kumar (extreme right) with her mother.Bridget White-Kumar (extreme right) with her mother.
While everyday lunch was considered simple, lunch on Saturdays and Sundays was special. Saturday lunch was invariably Saffron Coconut Rice, Mince ball curry or ‘Bad Word Curry’ (the word ‘Ball’ was considered rude or a slang word in the olden days, hence the name Bad Word Curry) and was served with the red ‘Devil Chutney’. My mind still recalls and relishes the taste of the Mince Ball Curry and Coconut Rice that my mum prepared on Saturdays for us when we were kids.
On Saturdays we had only half-day school so we were home by 12.30 pm, ravenously hungry and assailed by the delicious aroma of coconut rice and the tasty mince ball curry even before we reached our gate.
Since my mum was very particular about everything, the meat mince for the Ball Curry, had to be just right. The meat – either beef or mutton – was brought home fresh from the butcher shop. It was cut into pieces, washed and then minced at home in the meat mincer that was attached to the kitchen table. It was then mixed with the chopped ingredients and formed into even-sized balls. It was then dropped into the boiling curry that was already cooking on the stove and simmered till the mince balls were cooked to perfection and the gravy reached the right consistency.
The yellow coconut rice was always prepared with freshly squeezed coconut milk and butter. The raw rice and coconut milk would be simmered with ghee or butter, saffron and a few whole spices of cinnamon, cardamom and cloves till the rice was cooked perfectly. This coconut rice formed the fragrant yet light base of our Saturday Special Anglo-Indian Meal.
As a child, I would always try and help my mum to chop vegetables and onions, mince the meat or help her stir the delicious curries that she cooked for us. I would be the first person to help my mum churn the batter and cut the fruit for the Christmas cakes and puddings.
In a way, my mum greatly influenced my passion for cooking and encouraged me to do things myself. My favourite past time was to cut out recipes from old magazines and paste them in my scrap book which I still have till this day. My hobby was to try out the old recipes from my mum’s handwritten recipe books. Some of the old Colonial dishes with quaint names such as the Railway Meat Curry, Meat Glassey, Devil Curry and the Dak Bungalow Roast had a special fascination for me and I was keen to keep these dishes alive. Here is my mum’s recipe on Mother’s Day.
Description: Saffron Rice. (Photo: M Jithendra)Saffron Rice. (Photo: M Jithendra)
Saffron Coconut Rice
Serves: 6
1 pack- Coconut milk diluted with water to get 4 cups of milk or 1 fresh coconut grated and milk extracted to get 4 cups of diluted milk
2 cups- Raw Rice or Basmati Rice
½ tsp- Turmeric powder or a few strands of saffron
Salt to taste
4 tbsp- Butter or ghee
3- Cloves
3- Cardamoms
3- Small sticks of cinnamon
* Heat ghee in a large vessel or rice cooker and fry the spices for a few minutes.
* Add the washed rice, salt, turmeric and four cups of coconut milk and cook till the rice is done.
Indrani Dhar – Recipe Junction
My mom is a beautiful person from inside and out. She is a great cook and has a great enthusiasm for learning new cuisines and my sister and me were introduced to many Indian regional cuisines in my childhood by her. From her, I got the knack of cooking and became a foodie during my college days. On some days, I used to cook for our family of four, which used to be a test of sorts of my cooking skills. Now, I teach her how to prepare dishes from new cuisines. Of course, I still call her whenever I need guidance in cooking or I need life advice.
Description: Indrani Dhar (extreme left) with her family.Indrani Dhar (extreme left) with her family.
Today I’m sharing this traditional Bengali sweet recipe, “Doodh Puli Pitha”, which I learned from her after marriage. I clicked this picture during my early blogging days, when she visited me and made this dessert. Doodh puli has a outer shell made of rice flour and an inner filling made of Coconut and sugar/date palm jaggery. The shell, commonly made into half-moon shape, is called puli. After these pulis are prepared, they are boiled in thickened milk/doodh, sweetened with jaggery.
Doodh Puli Pitha
1 litre- Milk
250- Palm Jaggery or 1 cup- Sugar
For outer shell
500g- Rice flour
A pinch of salt
Lukewarm water to make the dough
For Inner filling
2 cups- Grated coconut
1 cup- Sugar
1 tbsp- Cardamom powder
For filling
* Take coconut in a wide pan.
* Add sugar little by little and keep stirring in low flame.
* Cook this mixture until the mixture comes together and sticks together. Remove from heat when the mixture leaves the sides of the pan. Flavour it with cardamom powder. Let it cool.
Description: Doodh Puli pithe. (Photo: Recipe Junction)Doodh Puli pithe. (Photo: Recipe Junction)
For the outer shell
* Take rice flour, add salt and mix.
* Add enough lukewarm water to make a soft dough.
* Cover the dough with a cloth.
For the puli
* Make small lemon-sized balls from the dough.
* Flatten each ball with your fingers in the shape of a bowl.
* The shell should be neither too thick nor too thin.
* Stuff a small amount of filling into each puli.
* Bring together both the edges and it will get the shape of half-moon, press and seal with your finger. Your puli is done. Make other pulis the same way.
For the thickened milk, heat milk in a wide pan.
* Let it boil for 10-12 more minutes.
* Then lower the heat to low, add jaggery according to your taste (you should always add jaggery on low heat, as it can curdle the milk when added on high heat).
* Add all the prepared pulis once the jaggery is well mixed in the milk.
* Cook for another 15 minutes or until pulis are soft and the milk has thickened. Take care not to break the pulis. The milk should be neither too thick nor too thin.
* Place the dish in the fridge for a couple of hours.